Resilient Communities: Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War. Cambridge University Press. 2018.
- 2019 Book Prize Winner: Lee Ann Fujii Award for Innovation in the Interpretive Study of Political Violence, Interpretive Methodologies and Methods (IMM) Conference Group of the American Political Science Association, sponsored by Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group
- 2019 Book Prize Runner-Up: Conflict Research Society Book of the Year Award
Krause, Jana and Erin Kamler. Civilian Ceasefire Monitoring and Civilian Protection: Evidence from Myanmar. (Working paper)
Krause, Jana. Protective Civilian Agency in Armed Conflict. (Working paper)
Krause, Jana. The Ethics of Ethnographic Research in Conflict Zones (r&r).
Krause, Jana. 2020. Restrained or Constrained? Elections, Communal Conflicts and Variation in Sexual Violence. Journal of Peace Research 57:1, 185–198 (open access).
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sexual violence varies significantly across cases of election violence and communal conflicts but systematic research is scarce. Post-election violence is particularly likely if electoral mobilization further polarizes longstanding communal conflicts and political elites do not instruct security forces to intervene decisively. I comparatively analyse two prominent cases of post-election violence in Kenya (2007/8) and Nigeria (2008) that exhibit stark variation in sexual violence. Patrimonial networks and norms of violent masculinity that increase the probability of (gang) rape were present in both cases and do not explain variation. Civil war research has identified three explanations for the variation in sexual violence: situational constraints; ordered sexual violence or restraint; and bottom-up dynamics of sexual violence or restraint. I examine these for the context of post-election violence. I argue that the type of communal conflict triggered by electoral mobilization explains variation in sexual violence. In Kenya, pogroms of a majority group against a minority allowed for the time and space to perpetrate widespread sexual violence while in Nigeria, dyadic clashes between similarly strong groups offered less opportunity but produced a significantly higher death toll. These findings have important implications for preventing election violence. They demonstrate that civilian vulnerability is gendered and that high levels of sexual violence do not necessarily correspond to high levels of lethal violence. Ignoring sexual violence means underestimating the real intensity of conflict and its impact on the political process.
Krause, Jana. 2019. Stabilization and Local Conflicts: Communal and Civil War in South Sudan. Ethnopolitics, 18:5, 478-493 (open access).
Scholars have long argued that local conflicts need to be integrated into the analysis of civil war and peacebuilding. Yet, systematic research of the linkages between communal violence and civil war is sparse. This contribution connects communal violence research to the stabilization and peacekeeping debate. To further a more systematic analysis of communal conflicts, I distinguish various types and their linkages to civil war and peacebuilding. In South Sudan, large-scale communal conflicts—communal wars—precede the country’s civil war and are likely to succeed it. Their protracted and fundamentally political nature means that they cannot be addressed as ‘local conflicts’ in isolation from national politics and state institutions. I argue that military force may temporarily stabilize a conflict zone but the horizontal linkages between urban and rural communal conflicts and their vertical linkages to national political processes require concerted efforts on the national and the sub-state level to avoid renewed conflict cycles and contribute to lasting stability.
Krause, Jana. 2019. Gender Dimensions of (Non)Violence in Communal Conflict: The Case of Jos, Nigeria. Comparative Political Studies, 52:10, (open access).
– Ethics and Methodology Appendix
Peacebuilding is more likely to succeed in countries with higher levels of gender equality, but few studies have examined the link between subnational gender relations and local peace and, more generally, peacebuilding after communal conflict. This article addresses this gap. I examine gender relations and (non)violence in ethno-religious conflict in the city of Jos in central Nigeria. Jos and its rural surroundings have repeatedly suffered communal clashes that have killed thousands, sometimes within only days. Drawing on qualitative data collected during fieldwork, I analyze the gender dimensions of violence, nonviolence, and postviolence prevention. I argue that civilian agency is gendered. Gender relations and distinct notions of masculinity can facilitate or constrain people’s mobilization for fighting. Hence, a nuanced understanding of the gender dimensions of (non)violence has important implications for conflict prevention and local peacebuilding.
Krause, Jana, Werner Krause and Piia Braenfors. 2018. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. International Interactions, 44:6, 985-1016 (open access).
There is an emerging consensus that women’s participation in peace negotiations contributes to the quality and durability of peace after civil war. However, to date, this proposition has remained empirically untested. Moreover, how women’s participation may contribute to durable peace has not been systematically explored. This article uses a mixed method design to examine this proposition. Our statistical analysis demonstrates a robust correlation between peace agreements signed by female delegates and durable peace. We further find that agreements signed by women show a significantly higher number of peace agreement provisions aimed at political reform, and higher implementation rates for provisions. We argue that linkages between women signatories and women civil society groups explain the observed positive impact of women’s direct participation in peace negotiations. Collaboration and knowledge building among diverse women groups contributes to better content of peace agreements and higher implementation rates of agreement provisions. We substantiate this argument with qualitative case study evidence and demonstrate how collaboration between female delegates and women civil society groups positively impacts peace processes. Our findings support the assumption that women’s participation in peace negotiations increases the durability and the quality of peace.
Krause, Jana. 2017. Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War: Evidence from Jos, Nigeria. African Affairs,116 (463): 261-283 (open access).
Communal violence is one of the deadliest forms of political violence in Nigeria. Research has yet to identify and explain the variation in spread and intensity of violence ‘within’ communal conflicts. This article analyses violence and non-violence in two almost contiguous neighbourhoods located in the city of Jos in central Nigeria that share ethnic, religious, and socio-economic similarities. It shows that structural factors such as geography, demography, or intervention by security forces do not predict non-violence. Rather, preventing killings during communal conflicts was contingent on civilian agency such as leadership, social control over internal youth, and refusal to collaborate with external armed groups. Drawing on narrative interviews, the article explores motivations for violence prevention and finds that knowledge concerning the organization of violence and lived experience in conflict zones were important factors that gave leaders the ability and confidence to persuade mobilized men not to start killings. These findings have important implications for the protection of civilians in communal conflicts.
Krause, Jana and Cynthia Enloe. 2015. A Wealth of Expertise and Lived Experience: Conversations between International Women Peace Activists at the ‘Women Lead to Peace Summit’ preceding the Geneva II Peace Talks on Syria, January 2014. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17:2 (open access).
Gilles Carbonnier, Fritz Brugger and Jana Krause. 2011. Assessing Policy Responses to the Resource Curse: Can Civil Society live up to the Expectation? Global Governance 17:2.
Krause, Jana and Louise Olsson. 2021. Women’s Participation in Peace Processes. In MacGinty, Roger and Anthony Wanis-St.John (eds): Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. Palgrave Macmillan (in preparation).
Krause, Jana. 2020. Stabilization and Local Conflicts: Communal and Civil War in South Sudan. In Belloni, Roberto and Francesco Moro (eds): Stabilization as the New Normal in International Interventions. London: Routledge.
Chappuis, Fairlie and Jana Krause. 2019. Ethics and Research Dilemmas in Dangerous Places: Exploring Security Actors, Institutions and Practices in Conflict-Affected Countries. In Marieke de Goede, Polly Pallister-Wilkins and Esme Bosma: Secrecy and Methods in Security Research. London: Routledge.
Krause, Jana. 2015. Revisiting Protection from Conflict-Related Sexual Violence. In: Gizelis, T-I. and L. Olsson (eds): Gender, Peace and Security: Implementing UNSCR 1325. Routledge 2015.
Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene and Jana Krause. 2015. Gender Equality and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Revisiting Gender Mainstreaming in Research and Policy. In: Gizelis, T-I. and L. Olsson (eds): Gender, Peace and Security: Implementing UNSCR 1325. Routledge, 2015 (with Theodora-Ismene Gizelis).
Krause, Jana. 2011. Die Konstruktion religiöser Gewalt im Kontext des Regimewechsels in Indonesien und Nigeria. In: Stephanie Garling/ Simon W. Fuchs (eds), Religion in Diktatur und Demokratie, Villigster Profile, Wuppertal.
Mani, Rama and Jana Krause. 2009. Democratic Governance. In: Vincent Chetail (ed), Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. A Lexicon. Oxford University Press (with Rama Mani).
Krause, Jana. 2018. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. Policy Brief, Conflict, Security and Development Research Group, War Studies, King’s College London.
Krause, Jana. 2013. Resilient Communities: Explaining Non-Violence during Ethno-Religious Conflict in Indonesia (Ambon) and Nigeria (Jos). PhD Thesis. Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva.
Krause, Jana. 2011. A Deadly Cycle: Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Geneva: Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat/Small Arms Survey, 65pp.
Krause, Jana. 2011. Jos: Guarding Peace in the Midst of Ethno-Religious Violence. Comunidad Segura Magazine Number 8.
Krause, Jana. 2011. Explaining Nigeria’s 2010 Christmas Killings. OpenDemocracy. 03.01.2011.
Wennman, Achim and Jana Krause. 2009. Resource Wealth, Autonomy, and Peace in Aceh: Managing the Economic Dimensions of Conflict in Peace Processes. CCDP Working Paper No. 3 (with Achim Wennmann).