Krause, Jana. 2018. Resilient Communities: Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War. Cambridge University Press.
- 2019 Book Prize Winner: Lee Ann Fujii Award for Innovation in the Interpretive Study of Political Violence, Interpretive Methodologies and Methods (IMM) Conference Group of the American Political Science Association, sponsored by Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group
- 2019 Book Prize Runner-Up: Conflict Research Society Book of the Year Award
- Related policy brief: Women, Peace and Security: Prevention and Resolution of Communal Conflicts
Krause, Jana, Juan Masullo, Emily Paddon Rhoads and Jennifer Welsh (eds). 2023. Civilian Protective Agency in Violent Settings. Oxford University Press.
Krause, Jana and Erin Kamler. 2022. Ceasefires and Civilian Protection Monitoring in Myanmar. Global Studies Quarterly 2:1, 1-12.
Civilian ceasefire and civilian protection monitoring are often seen as innovative peacekeeping and protection mechanisms in conflict zones difficult to access for international actors. However, the literature on civilian monitoring and its impact is sparse. In many conflicts, civilians organize to protect themselves. Research into civilian agency and protection has shown that civilian capacity to self-protect and conflict conditions determine whether protective civilian agency can be effective. We analyze whether civilian protection monitoring can positively impact the protection of civilians, focusing on Myanmar, where donors have funded civilian ceasefire monitoring efforts that are inclusive of a strong civilian protection component. We argue that despite failed ceasefires in Myanmar, the nurturing of civilian monitoring networks, that is, supporting civilian capacity, had a positive— albeit limited—impact on civilian protection. Monitors adapted knowledge from international ceasefire monitoring trainings to their reality on the ground and implemented civilian protection monitoring. Yet, conflict conditions seriously limited protec- tion monitoring and posed grave security challenges to monitors and communities. We conclude that in conflict situations where armed actors show little sensitivity to civilian preferences and commitment to respecting human rights, the need for civilian protection is high while the protective potential of civilian monitoring is limited as long as armed groups’ incentives to better protect civilians remain weak.
Krause, Jana. 2021. Ethics of Ethnographic Methods in Conflict Zones. Journal of Peace Research, 58:3, 329-341. Ethics & Methods Appendix
This article examines the ethics of using ethnographic methods in contemporary conflict zones. Ethnographic research is an embodied research practice of immersion within a field site whereby researchers use ethnographic sensibility to study how people make sense of their world. Feminist, conflict and peacebuilding scholars who research vulnerable populations and local dynamics especially value ethnographic approaches for their emphasis on contextual understanding, human agency, egalitarian research relationships and researcher empathy. While immersion leads to knowledge that can hardly be replaced by using more formal approaches, it also elicits ethical dilemmas. These arise not only from the specific research context but also from who the researcher is and how they may navigate violent and often misogynous settings. I argue that many dilemmas may and perhaps should not be overcome by researcher skill and perseverance. Instead, ethical challenges may lead researchers to adopt limited and/or uneven immersion in their field site, not as failed or flawed ethnography but as an ethical research strategy that incorporates ethnographic sensibility to a varying extent. Examining why researchers may opt for limited and uneven immersion is important because in conflict research, stereotypes of the intrepid (male) researcher with a neutral gaze still tend to mute open discussions of how gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, class and other background factors inevitably shape immersion. This article seeks to contribute to creating discursive space for these conversations, which are vital for researchers to analyse, reflect and write from the position of a ‘vulnerable observer’ and incorporate greater transparency in the discussion of research findings.
Krause, Jana. 2020. Restrained or Constrained? Elections, Communal Conflicts and Variation in Sexual Violence. Journal of Peace Research 57:1, 185-198 .
- 2020 Nils Petter Gleditsch Article of the Year Award, Journal of Peace Research
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sexual violence varies significantly across cases of election violence and communal conflicts but systematic research is scarce. Post-election violence is particularly likely if electoral mobilization further polarizes longstanding communal conflicts and political elites do not instruct security forces to intervene decisively. I comparatively analyse two prominent cases of post-election violence in Kenya (2007/8) and Nigeria (2008) that exhibit stark variation in sexual violence. Patrimonial networks and norms of violent masculinity that increase the probability of (gang) rape were present in both cases and do not explain variation. Civil war research has identified three explanations for the variation in sexual violence: situational constraints; ordered sexual violence or restraint; and bottom-up dynamics of sexual violence or restraint. I examine these for the context of post-election violence. I argue that the type of communal conflict triggered by electoral mobilization explains variation in sexual violence. In Kenya, pogroms of a majority group against a minority allowed for the time and space to perpetrate widespread sexual violence while in Nigeria, dyadic clashes between similarly strong groups offered less opportunity but produced a significantly higher death toll. These findings have important implications for preventing election violence. They demonstrate that civilian vulnerability is gendered and that high levels of sexual violence do not necessarily correspond to high levels of lethal violence. Ignoring sexual violence means underestimating the real intensity of conflict and its impact on the political process.
Krause, Jana. 2019. Stabilization and Local Conflicts: Communal and Civil War in South Sudan. Ethnopolitics, 18:5, 478-493.
Scholars have long argued that local conflicts need to be integrated into the analysis of civil war and peacebuilding. Yet, systematic research of the linkages between communal violence and civil war is sparse. This contribution connects communal violence research to the stabilization and peacekeeping debate. To further a more systematic analysis of communal conflicts, I distinguish various types and their linkages to civil war and peacebuilding. In South Sudan, large-scale communal conflicts—communal wars—precede the country’s civil war and are likely to succeed it. Their protracted and fundamentally political nature means that they cannot be addressed as ‘local conflicts’ in isolation from national politics and state institutions. I argue that military force may temporarily stabilize a conflict zone but the horizontal linkages between urban and rural communal conflicts and their vertical linkages to national political processes require concerted efforts on the national and the sub-state level to avoid renewed conflict cycles and contribute to lasting stability.
Krause, Jana. 2019. Gender Dimensions of (Non)Violence in Communal Conflict: The Case of Jos, Nigeria. Comparative Political Studies, 52:10, 1466-499. | Ethics & Methods Appendix
Peacebuilding is more likely to succeed in countries with higher levels of gender equality, but few studies have examined the link between subnational gender relations and local peace and, more generally, peacebuilding after communal conflict. This article addresses this gap. I examine gender relations and (non)violence in ethno-religious conflict in the city of Jos in central Nigeria. Jos and its rural surroundings have repeatedly suffered communal clashes that have killed thousands, sometimes within only days. Drawing on qualitative data collected during fieldwork, I analyze the gender dimensions of violence, nonviolence, and postviolence prevention. I argue that civilian agency is gendered. Gender relations and distinct notions of masculinity can facilitate or constrain people’s mobilization for fighting. Hence, a nuanced understanding of the gender dimensions of (non)violence has important implications for conflict prevention and local peacebuilding.
Krause, Jana, Werner Krause and Piia Braenfors. 2018. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. International Interactions, 44:6, 985-1016. | Replication Data | Policy Brief
There is an emerging consensus that women’s participation in peace negotiations contributes to the quality and durability of peace after civil war. However, to date, this proposition has remained empirically untested. Moreover, how women’s participation may contribute to durable peace has not been systematically explored. This article uses a mixed method design to examine this proposition. Our statistical analysis demonstrates a robust correlation between peace agreements signed by female delegates and durable peace. We further find that agreements signed by women show a significantly higher number of peace agreement provisions aimed at political reform, and higher implementation rates for provisions. We argue that linkages between women signatories and women civil society groups explain the observed positive impact of women’s direct participation in peace negotiations. Collaboration and knowledge building among diverse women groups contributes to better content of peace agreements and higher implementation rates of agreement provisions. We substantiate this argument with qualitative case study evidence and demonstrate how collaboration between female delegates and women civil society groups positively impacts peace processes. Our findings support the assumption that women’s participation in peace negotiations increases the durability and the quality of peace.
Krause, Jana. 2017. Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War: Evidence from Jos, Nigeria. African Affairs,116 (463): 261-283.
Krause, Jana and Cynthia Enloe. 2015. A Wealth of Expertise and Lived Experience: Conversations between International Women Peace Activists at the Women Lead to Peace Summit preceding the Geneva II Peace Talks on Syria, January 2014. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17:2.
Carbonnier, Gilles, Fritz Brugger and Jana Krause. 2011. Global and Local Policy Responses to the Resource Trap. Global Governance, 17:2, 247-264.
Krause, Jana. 2023. Civilian Protection Monitoring in War and Ceasefire Contexts: Evidence from Myanmar’s Kachin and Karen States. In: Krause, Jana, Juan Masullo, Emily Paddon-Rhoads and Jennifer Welsh (eds): Civilian Protective Agency in Violent Settings. Oxford University Press. (Post-print)
Krause, Jana, Juan Masullo and Emily Paddon-Rhoads. 2023. Introduction. In: Krause, Jana, Juan Masullo, Emily Paddon-Rhoads and Jennifer Welsh (eds): Civilian Protective Agency in Violent Settings. Oxford University Press.
Krause, Jana and Louise Olsson. 2022. Women’s Participation in Peace Processes. In MacGinty, Roger and Anthony Wanis-St.John (eds): Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. Palgrave Macmillan.
Chappuis, Fairlie and Jana Krause. 2019. Ethics and Research Dilemmas in Dangerous Places: Exploring Security Actors, Institutions and Practices in Conflict-Affected Countries. In Marieke de Goede, Polly Pallister-Wilkins and Esme Bosma: Secrecy and Methods in Security Research. London: Routledge.
Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene and Jana Krause. 2015. Gender Equality and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Revisiting Gender Mainstreaming in Research and Policy. In: Gizelis, T-I. and L. Olsson (eds): Gender, Peace and Security: Implementing UNSCR 1325. Routledge, 2015 (with Theodora-Ismene Gizelis). (Post-print)
Krause, Jana. 2015. Revisiting Protection from Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: Actors, Victims and Power. In: Gizelis, T-I. and L. Olsson (eds): Gender, Peace and Security: Implementing UNSCR 1325. Routledge 2015. (Post-print)
Krause, Jana. 2011. Die Konstruktion religiöser Gewalt im Kontext des Regimewechsels in Indonesien und Nigeria. In: Stephanie Garling/ Simon W. Fuchs (eds), Religion in Diktatur und Demokratie, Villigster Profile, Wuppertal.
Mani, Rama and Jana Krause. 2009. Democratic Governance. In: Vincent Chetail (ed), Post-Conflict Pecebuilding. A Lexicon. Oxford University Press. 2009.
Krause, Jana. 2020. Women, Peace and Security: Prevention and Resolution of Communal Conflicts. Joint Brief Series ‘New Insights on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) for the Next Decade’, Folke Bernadotte Academy, Peace Research Institute Oslo and UN Women.
Crippa, Lorenzo, Theodora-Ismene Gizelis, Jana Krause and Paul Minoletti. 2020. Differences in Citizens’ Budget Preferences in Myanmar: Evidence from a New Survey. Myanmar Institute of Gender Studies, forthcoming.
Krause, Jana. 2018. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. Research Brief, Conflict, Security and Development Research Group, King’s College London.
Krause, Jana. 2014. Prevention of Conflict-related Sexual Violence: What does Academic Research tell us?’in Prevention of Wartime Rape, Panel Discussion Report from the Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, Global Diplomatic Forum.
Krause, Jana. 2011. A Deadly Cycle: Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Geneva: Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, (65pp).